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Do anatomic changes found in the throwing arm after a season of pitching resolve with off-season rest? A dynamic ultrasound study

HYPOTHESIS: Our hypothesis was that seasonal adaptive changes in the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), ulnohumeral joint space (UHJS), and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) of the pitching extremity would subsequently resolve with off-season rest.
METHODS: Eleven collegiate pitchers underwent preseason, postseason, and off-season evaluations including physical examination; dynamic ultrasound imaging of the UCL and UHJS; and the short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire. Ultrasound images were evaluated by 2 fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists.

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